2.) While Danby seems to have been rightly sceptical about Oates's claims, the Cavalier Parliament took them seriously. Carlos II non deixou á súa morte ningunha cuestión de lexitimidade; con todo, tivo varios fillos cos seus amantes, moitas delas esposas de nobres. On the last evening of his life he was received into the Catholic Church in the presence of Father John Huddleston, though the extent to which he was fully conscious or committed, and with whom the idea originated, is unclear. The grant, however, proved to be insufficient for most of Charles's reign. It sought to discourage non-conformity to the Church of England and passed several acts to secure Anglican dominance. During Charles's reign all legal documents stating a, From the death of his father to his defeat at the, All dates in this article unless otherwise noted are given in the. Carlos II foi un mecenas das artes e as ciencias. To destroy opposition in London, Charles first disenfranchised many Whigs in the 1682 municipal elections, and in 1683 the London charter was forfeited. [f] The Second Dutch War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Breda. At or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested.[2]. When a new Parliament assembled at Oxford in March 1681, Charles dissolved it for a fourth time after just a few days. Carlos foi tamén o mecenas persoal de Sir Christopher Wren, o arquitecto que axudou a reconstruír Londres despois do Grande Incendio de Londres de 1666. [92] His arms as monarch were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). His other mistresses included Moll Davis, Nell Gwyn, Elizabeth Killigrew, Catherine Pegge, Lucy Walter and Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth. (2013). Royalist supporters in the Spanish force were led by Charles's younger brother James, Duke of York. One thousand pounds was a vast sum at the time, greater than an average workman's lifetime earnings. However, the new Lord Protector had little experience of either military or civil administration. [43], The same year, in an unpopular move, Charles sold Dunkirk to his first cousin King Louis XIV of France for about £375,000. Ciertamente, Inglaterra también estaba deseosa de terminar la guerra a cualquier precio razonable, ya que la muerte de Carlos II de España se esperaba de un momento a otro y no estaba claro si a Inglaterra le convendría un During the civil and military unrest that followed, George Monck, the Governor of Scotland, was concerned that the nation would descend into anarchy. Se hizo célebre por sus numerosos hijos ilegítimos, de los que reconoció a catorce. [72] The suddenness of his illness and death led to suspicion of poison in the minds of many, including one of the royal doctors; however, a more modern medical analysis has held that the symptoms of his final illness are similar to those of uraemia (a clinical syndrome due to kidney dysfunction). Chegou a Londres o 29 de maio, a que se considera data oficial da Restauración, e que coincidía co trixésimo aniversario de Carlos. Francia e as Provincias Unidas (a actual Holanda ou Países Baixos) aliáronse co goberno de Cromwell, forzando a Carlos a recorrer a España en demanda de axuda. He was brought up in the care of the Protestant Countess of Dorset, though his godparents included his maternal uncle Louis XIII and his maternal grandmother, Marie de' Medici, the Dowager Queen of France, both of whom were Catholics. Outras partes do Código Clarendon incluían leis como o Acta de Corporación e o Acta de Uniformidade (1662). O novo Parlamento, constituído en marzo do mesmo ano, resultou ser francamente hostil ao rei. By Elizabeth Killigrew (1622–1680), daughter of Sir Robert Killigrew, married Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount Shannon, in 1660: By Barbara Villiers (1641–1709), wife of Roger Palmer, 1st Earl of Castlemaine and created Duchess of Cleveland in her own right: By Louise Renée de Penancoet de Kérouaille (1649–1734), created Duchess of Portsmouth in her own right (1673): By Mary 'Moll' Davis, courtesan and actress of repute:[97], Letters claiming that Marguerite or Margaret de Carteret bore Charles a son named James de la Cloche in 1646 are dismissed by historians as forgeries. Os "aborrecedores" —o sector dos que se opuñan á Lei de Exclusión— transformáronse no Partido Tory (conservador), mentres que os "peticionarios" —que apoiaban dita lei— convertéronse no Partido Whig (liberal). Monck e o seu exército marcharon ata a cidade de Londres onde, con amplo apoio popular, forzaron ao chamado Parlamento Longo a disolverse. Whose word no man relies on, Desgraciadamente para el, a Cámara dos Comúns resistiuse a consideralo implicado contra a súa vontade no escándalo, crendo en cambio que fora el o autor daquela política. Lord Danby foi forzado a dimitir do seu posto de Lord Tesoureiro, pero recibiu o perdón real. Sitio Web oficial da monarquía británica. On 14 May, he was proclaimed king in Dublin. A instancia súa, o Parlamento Arrogante aprobou diversas leis que pasaron a constituír o denominado "Código Clarendon". Other kings had inspired more respect, but perhaps only Henry VIII had endeared himself to the popular imagination as much as this one. Unfortunately for him, the House of Commons failed to view him as a reluctant participant in the scandal, instead believing that he was the author of the policy. [18] At the Battle of the Dunes in 1658, as part of the larger Spanish force, Charles's army of around 2,000 clashed with Commonwealth troops fighting with the French. Charles accompanied his father during the Battle of Edgehill and, at the age of fourteen, participated in the campaigns of 1645, when he was made titular commander of the English forces in the West Country. Despite his son's diplomatic efforts to save him, King Charles I was beheaded in January 1649, and England became a republic. Ao abrazar o catolicismo no seu leito de morte, Carlos II converteuse no primeiro católico romano que reinaba en Inglaterra desde a morte de María I en 1558, e en Escocia desde a deposición de María I de Escocia, en 1567. Empobrecido, Carlos non logrou reunir suficientes apoios como para supor un desafío serio ao Lord Protector. Charles raised a ragtag army from his exiled subjects; this small, underpaid, poorly-equipped and ill-disciplined force formed the nucleus of the post-Restoration army. [78] He was buried in Westminster Abbey "without any manner of pomp"[77] on 14 February.[79]. And never did a wise one"[35], To which Charles is reputed to have replied "that the matter was easily accounted for: For that his discourse was his own, his actions were the ministry's". [23] The English Parliament resolved to proclaim Charles king and invite him to return, a message that reached Charles at Breda on 8 May 1660. [47] Clarendon fled to France when impeached for high treason (which carried the penalty of death). Negotiations with Portugal for Charles's marriage to Catherine of Braganza began during his father's reign and upon the restoration, Queen Luísa of Portugal, acting as regent, reopened negotiations with England that resulted in an alliance. As Actas de Navegación (1650), prexudicaron o comercio de Holanda e foron causa da Segunda Guerra Holandesa (1665-1667). Portugal had been helped by France, but in the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 Portugal was abandoned by its French ally. [40] Charles and his brother James joined and directed the fire-fighting effort. A pesar dos esforzos do seu fillo por salvarlle, Carlos I foi executado en 1649, proclamándose a república en Inglaterra. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. O seu abandono do Anglicanismo, aínda que reportoulle apoios en Escocia, fíxolle impopular en Inglaterra. [53] The Portuguese territories that Catherine brought with her as a dowry proved too expensive to maintain; Tangier was abandoned in 1684. In 1672, Charles issued the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, in which he purported to suspend all penal laws against Catholics and other religious dissenters. Os holandeses afundiron case todos os navíos, excepto a Nave Almirante, a cal tomaron e conduciron ata Holanda como trofeo. For the most part, the actual revenue was much lower, which led to attempts to economise at court by reducing the size and expenses of the royal household[29] and raise money through unpopular innovations such as the hearth tax. The Abhorrers—those who thought the Exclusion Bill was abhorrent—were named Tories (after a term for dispossessed Irish Catholic bandits), while the Petitioners—those who supported a petitioning campaign in favour of the Exclusion Bill—were called Whigs (after a term for rebellious Scottish Presbyterians). In 1670, he entered into the Treaty of Dover, an alliance with his cousin King Louis XIV of France. Desafiando a vontade do rei, o Parlamento decretou que a disolución da asemblea non interrompía unha moción de censura. Professor Ronald Hutton summarises the polarised historiography: For the past hundred years, books on Charles II have been sharply divided into two categories. The crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles's hopes for a more moderate Parliament were not fulfilled; within a few months he had dissolved Parliament yet again, after it sought to pass the Exclusion Bill. [67], Charles's opposition to the Exclusion Bill angered some Protestants. O Acta de Conventículos (1664) prohibía as asembleas relixiosas de máis de cinco persoas, excepto as celebradas no seo da Igrexa de Inglaterra. Sucedeulle o seu irmán, o duque de York, que pasou a ser Xacobe II de Inglaterra e Irlanda e VII de Escocia. [54] In 1670, Charles granted control of the entire Hudson Bay drainage basin to the Hudson's Bay Company by royal charter, and named the territory Rupert's Land, after his cousin Prince Rupert of the Rhine, the company's first Governor. [17] The Commonwealth made the Treaty of Paris with France in 1657 to join them in war against Spain in the Netherlands. Charles's eldest son, the Duke of Monmouth, led a rebellion against James II, but was defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685, captured and executed. This gathered Spanish support for a restoration in return for Charles's contribution to the war against France. Outra tormenta política á que Carlos houbo de facer fronte foi a sucesión ao trono. Looking back on Charles's reign, Tories tended to view it as a time of benevolent monarchy whereas Whigs perceived it as a terrible despotism. En 1668, Inglaterra aliouse con Suecia e coa súa anterior inimiga, Holanda, a fin de oporse a Luís XIV na Guerra de Devolución. Resultou elixida unha Cámara dos Comúns con claro predominio da facción realista. His parents were Charles I, who ruled the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Henrietta Maria, the sister of the French king Louis XIII. En 1646, o seu pai, temendo pola súa seguridade, ordenoulle marcharse a Francia e reunirse coa súa nai, que se atopaba alí no exilio. In defiance of the royal will, the House of Commons declared that the dissolution of Parliament did not interrupt impeachment proceedings, and that the pardon was therefore invalid. A histeria anticatólica estendeuse pola poboación: os xuíces e xurados de todo o país condenaron a supostos conspiradores, e numerosos inocentes foron executados. [62], Later in 1678, Danby was impeached by the House of Commons on the charge of high treason.
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